The Nature of People

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  1. Organizational Behavior - Concepts - Tutorialspoint
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Based on our human nature we also tend to look at the behavior without looking for the underlying reason.

Individual Differences

If we saw a child stealing we will quickly assume that the child is ill mannered but if we knew that the child is doing so just to direct his parents attention towards him his behavior can make a lot of sense. When attempting to understand others you must know that based on the human nature all the activities that seem odd, weird or irrational were developed in order to serve very rational goals. For example, The criminal who kills people for no reason is considered psycho by the society but when finding out that he used to feel inferior as a child and the only way he found to feel superior was to become dangerous we can then understand him better.

2. The nature of persons: dualism vs. physicalism

When attempting to understand people your human nature is the only thing that can lead you astray. By learning how to look at the underlying reason behind a behavior and by learning how to not judge others without seeing the full picture you will certainly understand people better. By understanding your own human nature and the thinking patterns that result from it you will certainly understand people with very little effort. If you think that this is some kind of marketing hype then see what other visitors say about 2knowmyself.

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Organizational Behavior - Concepts - Tutorialspoint

In this article i will tell you how to understand people and human nature. This has not only created social and economic dislocation, but it has also placed relentless pressure on the world's ecosystems. The network cuts through the last natural areas on earth, continuing to fragment farms, forests, and wilderness into ever-smaller shards. This network of trade, transportation, and information is so much a part of your life that you, like everyone else, remain blind to it.

We need to create a new science, a new political and business structure that will help us understand the fundamental needs of human and natural systems and allow them to coexist. As environmental advocates, we must understand and reach out to those who build the network. We must help them understand, in detail, how this network destroys natural systems. Then, we can begin to devise a new framework that will rebuild what we have destroyed. As many recognize, reconciling people and nature is now one of society's central challenges.

If we hope to meet this challenge successfully, we must not assume that we already know all about the problem. If we hope to manage our infrastructure in harmony with natural systems, we must cultivate a whole new point of view. Both the environmental community and society at large have become increasingly specialized. As a society, we focus too much on bits of the problem: this endangered species, that development proposal, that carbon credit initiative, this road project, or that flood levee.

We spend far too little time looking at how they all fit together. Of course, anyone who makes a daily to-do list knows that problems need to be broken down into manageable pieces. The trick, however, is to not lose sight of the big picture while working out the details. We must stop being afraid of generalists. How do we start to build this new framework? First, we need to look closely at the network that humanity has built to meet its needs.

Before we can talk in detail about solutions, we need to fundamentally alter the way we see our situation. We need to rise above all the details, to see our problems in the big picture. We need to stop trying to fix the environment and figure out how to manage the network. To do that, we need to understand the network: How has it evolved? What does it look like now? Today, the network that has formed across North America is denser, faster, and more complex than is usually imagined by politicians, business leaders, or environmentalists.

As the 20th century began, the country had few paved roads or automobiles. By , 1. By , those same numbers more than doubled: to more than 2. The recent increases in the network's complexity and speed have been so fast, and the changes so profound, that it's difficult to remember how things used to be not so very long ago. In the late s, a superhighway meant a four-lane road with unlimited access: no on-ramps, no off-ramps, no overpasses. Propellers powered planes, which had to stop for gas on their way across the continent.

Bulk cargo made its way across the oceans on freighters; container ships did not exist. In the midth century, egrets in the millions used to nest in the Florida Everglades. Now birders exclaim when seeing just a few dozen egrets at one time. In the Pacific Northwest, salmon used to run in such numbers that anglers joked it was possible to walk across rivers on the backs of the salmon. Today, 40 percent of those streams have no fish at all. Air laden with mercury and other pollutants remained the exception rather than the norm. To fully understand the development of the United States' Northeast, we need to understand that the human network is not new.

It has been evolving since people first set foot on the continent. It began slowly. In America, native footpaths through the wilderness formed the first tendrils of the network. Then, nearly years ago, European settlers landed. As colonial settlements gradually took form, the French, the Spanish, and the English widened the tracks into dirt roads and established shipping routes and ports on the coasts and along the rivers. For more than two centuries, dirt roads and rivers formed the North American network. The few "turnpikes" were nothing more than log roads to help foot travelers and lumbering Conestoga wagons avoid the mud.

Waterways remained the most convenient highways through the new nation. With the development of the steam engine in the late 18th century, the network's development began to accelerate. Less than 50 years later, steamships were crossing the oceans and plying the rivers. Railroads crossed the landscape, linked the cities, and pushed inland, deep into the Midwestern plains. With great fanfare, Union Pacific and Central Pacific track crews in drove the last spike into the transcontinental railroad at Promontory, Utah, thus linking the east and west coasts.

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The nation's entire rail system only comprised 52, miles then. Within 30 years, more than , miles of track crisscrossed the country. Telegraph lines followed the railroad lines, initiating the first communications revolution. These corridors of transportation and communications rapidly spread and transformed the continent, as booming cities reached farther and farther into the wilderness for raw materials.

Steam engines and telegraphs began an ever-accelerating process of massive environmental impact that continues today. Railroads fragmented the landscape. As railroads conquered distance, depletion of natural resources accelerated. Timber was extracted from what was believed to be endless virgin forests.

Pollution increased as the network grew. Factories demanded more energy to fuel the same steam engines that had changed the methods and finances of manufacturing. As population and incomes grew, the demand for food and new homes eroded the landscape, changing fields and forests into farms and farms into suburbs. All these developments hastened extinction. Ladies' fashion doomed the carrier pigeon and the flamingo.

Railroads brought sportsmen to the prairie, where they slaughtered millions of buffalo and left them to rot. Later, as the network developed, tons of domestic beef traveled by rail to markets in Chicago, Illinois. Again and again, throughout the 20th century, this cycle of environmental destruction has repeated itself as the network has added new "layers" and developed new capacities: Railroads led to roads, which then led to airplanes.

Telegraphs led to telephones and computers and satellite communication. Each development increased the efficiency and the reach of the human network.

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As it has developed, the network has added more layers, each of which has become more specialized. As autos and air took over passenger traffic, railroads and steamships increasingly hauled only freight. This increased specialization has more tightly linked the network and made it more interactive. It exerts an ever-greater influence on our lives, businesses, governments, and institutions, which have also dissolved into a mosaic of disciplines and subdisciplines.

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We need to get beyond our own communities, our interest groups, our specialties. If we try to see our nation as an integrated whole, it becomes obvious that cities and metropolitan areas are the smaller and larger networks that have grown at the interstices of a great continental network.

So let's take an example so familiar that we think we know all about it: the Northeast corridor of the United States, the area from Washington, D. In , this region had already been labeled a megalopolis, a seemingly borderless urban region that reached beyond traditional city boundaries. Since then, the eastern seaboard has urbanized much more quickly and in a much different pattern than predicted or broadly understood.

The East Coast is not the linear corridor and continuous urban smear that was predicted and that most of us imagine. Rather, the region has morphed into an urban lattice composed of metropolitan centers and corridors extending westward. A series of parkways and turnpikes had begun connecting the seaboard's cities, but these were single-purpose segments.

The Pennsylvania Turnpike, for instance, had been built to link Philadelphia to the Midwest, not to intersect with the New Jersey Turnpike and throughways to form a network. Consequently, these roads had not formed a large-scale grid. New Jersey, in the center of the 11 states that make up the region, remained an agricultural area.

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Its nickname, the Garden State, had not yet become an irony. The Interstate Highway Act would change all that. Passed in , the act created a new foundation for growth: an interstate grid that connected the six large metropolitan areas of the Northeast. Planners sought to create a passage, now known as the Northeast Corridor, that would link these urban centers, reducing intercity travel times and increasing economic synergies. Their strategy worked. However, the interstates' initial phase also created a platform for suburbs to spread across the land gobbling up wildlife habitat and resources, extending the fragmentation, depletion, pollution, erosion, and extinction of natural systems.

Work began on the New Jersey Turnpike in and later merged with the construction of I to complete the Northeast Corridor by Between and , New Jersey's population doubled, and by the dawn of the 21st century, only two million of the state's six million acres remained undeveloped. The new roads made it possible for ever-greater numbers of people and goods to move around the state.

Population density increased. Suburbs more than doubled the urban area surrounding the cities of Philadelphia, New York, and Boston. As growth continued, New Jersey housing became highly desirable.

People and Nature

Not only could the state offer an exceptional landscape of mountains and shores, it lay between Philadelphia and New York, the region's two largest cities. The new highways transformed the Garden State into an urban state. The state's myriad small towns no longer dotted a rural countryside. Instead, in the north and south, they had grown together. High-capacity interstates created a new kind of transportation corridor that provided greater accessibility and visibility for businesses.

This, in turn, changed the pattern of economic activity. The new corridors attracted commercial development and evolved into long strips of restaurants, hotels, office buildings, industrial parks, movie theaters, and shopping centers. Two years after the first interstates opened, the first commercial jets entirely changed the pattern of long-distance travel.

Airports provided the most efficient access to regional, national, and international markets. This ended the grand era of train travel as people flocked to the airports for quick connections to distant locales. This proved a great advantage to the larger cities with well-developed airports and a terrible disadvantage to the small cities with limited air service like Hartford, Connecticut; Harrisburg, Pennsylvania; Wilmington, Delaware; and Danbury, Connecticut.

Those who envisioned the interstates saw them as a strategic tool to connect cities, moving not only goods but also tanks and other weapons in case of war. Yet the roads themselves became linear cities as more homes and businesses clustered around these high-speed corridors. They also became the habitat of bumper-to-bumper traffic.